Antivirals can definitely play a role in management of Covid-19 patients. The only 2 drugs with randomised trials so far are Interferon and Remdesivir. Interferon should be given before 7 days of symptom onset. The very few patients that do not recover may need tocilizumab which acts against interleukin-6 receptors.Only one injection may be needed. The aircraft carrier Theodore Roosevelt has demonstrated that 60% of infected patients remain asymptomatic, 60% develop antibodies and above all only 1 sailor succumbed out of the 1100 infected.

Hence case fatality rate is less than 0.1% in young and fit sailors. Triple combination of interferon beta-1b, lopinavir–ritonavir, and ribavirin in the treatment of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19: an open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial

Published Online The Lancet; May 8, 2020 S0140-6736(20)31042-4


Remdesivir for the Treatment of Covid-19 — Preliminary Report

J.H. Beigel, K.M. Tomashek, L.E. Dodd, A.K. Mehta, B.S. Zingman, A.C. Kalil, E. Hohmann, H.Y. Chu, A. Luetkemeyer, S. Kline, D. Lopez de Castilla, R.W. Finberg, K. Dierberg, V. Tapson, L. Hsieh, T.F. Patterson, R. Paredes, D.A. Sweeney, W.R. Short, G. Touloumi, D.C. Lye, N. Ohmagari, M. Oh, G.M. Ruiz-Palacios, T. Benfield, G. Fätkenheuer, M.G. Kortepeter, R.L. Atmar, C.B. Creech, J. Lundgren, A.G. Babiker, S. Pett, J.D. Neaton, T.H. Burgess, T. Bonnett, M. Green, M. Makowski, A. Osinusi, S. Nayak, and H.C. Lane, for the ACTT-1 Study Group Members* This article was published on May 22, 2020, at

Remdesivir for 5 or 10 Days in Patients with Severe Covid-19

Jason D. Goldman, M.D., M.P.H., David C.B. Lye, M.B., B.S., David S. Hui, M.D., Kristen M. Marks, M.D., Raffaele Bruno, M.D., Rocio Montejano, M.D., Christoph D. Spinner, M.D., Massimo Galli, M.D., Mi-Young Ahn, M.D., Ronald G. Nahass, M.D., Yao-Shen Chen, M.D., Devi SenGupta, M.D., Robert H. Hyland, D.Phil., Anu O. Osinusi, M.D., Huyen Cao, M.D., Christiana Blair, M.S., Xuelian Wei, Ph.D., Anuj Gaggar, M.D., Ph.D., Diana M. Brainard, M.D., William J. Towner, M.D., Jose Muñoz, M.D., Kathleen M. Mullane, D.O., Pharm.D., Francisco M. Marty, M.D.,Karen T. Tashima, M.D., George Diaz, M.D., and Aruna Subramanian, M.D., for the GS-US-540-5773 Investigators*

This article was published on May 27, 2020, at DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2015301

medRxiv preprint doi: version posted June 3, 2020. The copyright holder for this preprint (which was not certified by peer review) is the author/funder, who has granted medRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. It is made available under a CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license . Tocilizumab for COVID-19 Tocilizumab for treatment of mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 Emily C Somers, PhD ScM1,2,3*, Gregory A Eschenauer, PharmD4*, Jonathan P Troost, PhD5, Jonathan L Golob, MD PhD1, Tejal N Gandhi, MD1, Lu Wang, PhD6, Nina Zhou, MS6, Lindsay A Petty, MD1, Ji Hoon Baang, MD1, Nicholas O Dillman, PharmD7, David Frame, PharmD4, Kevin S Gregg, MD1, Dan R Kaul, MD1, Jerod Nagel, PharmD7, Twisha S Patel, PharmD7, Shiwei Zhou, MD1, Adam S Lauring, MD PhD1, David A Hanauer, MD MS8, Emily Martin, PhD9, Pratima Sharma, MD MS1, Christopher M Fung, MD10, Jason M Pogue, PharmD4

Effective treatment of severe COVID-19 patients with tocilizumab

Xiaoling Xua,1,2, Mingfeng Hanb,1, Tiantian Lia, Wei Sunb, Dongsheng Wanga, Binqing Fuc,d, Yonggang Zhouc,d, Xiaohu Zhengc,d, Yun Yange, Xiuyong Lif, Xiaohua Zhangb, Aijun Pane, and Haiming Weic,d,2


Pilot prospective open, single-arm multicentre study on off-label use of tocilizumab in severe patients with COVID-19

S. Sciascia1,2, F. Aprà2, A. Baffa1,2, S. Baldovino1,2, D. Boaro2, R. Boero2, S. Bonora2, A. Calcagno2, I. Cecchi1,2, G. Cinnirella2, M. Converso2, M. Cozzi1,2, P. Crosasso2, F. De Iaco2, G. Di Perri2, M. Eandi3, R. Fenoglio1,2, M. Giusti2, D. Imperiale2, G. Imperiale2, S. Livigni2, E. Manno2,

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